[From The Worker, #5, October 1999.]


- Com. Gaurav

'Today, the Revolutionary Internationalist Movement, together with other Maoist forces, are the inheritors of Marx, Engels, Lenin, Stalin and Mao, and they must firmly base themselves on this heritage.' [l]

After the death of Com. Mao, the great teacher and leader of the international proletariat, in 1976, Hua-Teng revisionist clique usurped the leadership of the Communist Party of China (CPC) and so also the socialist state, through a reactionary coup détat, in China. These unfortunate events influenced the whole International Communist Movement (ICM) in such a big way that it was felt deprived that of its international leader and international revolutionary base area, simultaneously. It was such an unprecedented loss which the ICM hardly felt in its entire history. In face of such a ruthless crisis, 'genuine Marxist-Leninist-Maoist on all continents who have refused to abandon the struggle for communism' [2] intensified their painstaking efforts to evolve a nucleus of Maoists in an international level on the foundation of concrete ideological basis.

First International Conference was held in Autumn 1980, which published a joint communiqué of 13 organisations calling upon all the genuine Marxist-Leninist-Maoist forces to unity. It has to be taken up as a positive step, which paved the way for the genuine communist revolutionaries to come closer for further advance.

Second International Conference of Marxist-Leninist-Maoist Parties and Organisations was successfully convened in 1984. This conference adopted 'Declaration' which served as the ideologic basis of unity of the Marxist-Leninist-Maoist Parties and Organisations at international level. Thus, having achieved 'Declaration' as its ideological basis of unity, the Second International Conference succeeded in achieving organisational unity by founding Revolutionary Internationalist Movement as organisational basis of unity.

In the midst of such a severe and big crisis in the ICM, the heroic people of Peru initiated People's War in 1980, under the leadership of the Communist Party of Peru (PCP), which also played very significant role in the formation of RIM. Thus, our class was able to embrace a People's War in Peru, which was initiated before the RIM was born. RIM with a sense of great responsibility and high regard, concentrated all its effort in generating world wide support and mobilising masses through various campaigns in support of the PW in Peru. PCP has made its own assessment regarding the international support enjoyed by the PW as follows: 'This People's War has served the world proletarian Revolution from the very start and will continue to do so. It enjoys the support of the international working class and the world's people, of the genuine revolutionaries and communists, and very specially of the Revolutionary Internationalist Movement to which the Party belongs. . . .' [3] It is a matter of great pride and glory that one of the participating parties of the RIM, has initiated another People's War in Nepal, which is advancing forward by achieving tremendous successes. Advanced proletariat and revolutionary masses of Nepal had expressed their real international solidarity with the People's War in Peru by initiating and advancing another People's War in their own land, under the leadership of Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) [CPN (Maoist)], which regards itself as a contingent of international proletariat army. Cooperation of the CORIM to the People's War of Nepal in the ideological-political preparation, which was one of the most important part of the total preparation of PW and acquiring and accumulating world wide support after initiation, are really of paramount importance. Thus, RIM is now embracing two tremendously important People's War of the world to-day, namely, PW in Peru and PW in Nepal.

RIM is a continuation of the glorious heritage of the International Communist Movement, which was being subsequently founded and led by the great leaders Marx, Engels, Lenin, Stalin and Mao. We know that the First International Organisation of revolutionary proletariat was the Communist League. Propounded by Marx and Engels, the Communist Manifesto, the programme of the League clearly mentioned the most important goal of the proletariat—abolition of the exploiting classes and establishment of Communist society. Enthusiastic appeal of the League 'Workers of the World Unite!' became a slogan of the struggle of the international proletariat.

The First International was founded, with the decisive and leading role played by Marx on September 1864 in London. The role of Marx was of paramount importance as truly explained by Lenin—'Marx was the heart and soul of this organisation and author of its first Address and of host of resolutions, declarations and manifestoes. Likewise, Engels played an important role in formation of the Second International which became a vehicle in uniting the working class and propagating Marxism.'[4]

In course of the First World War, obviously there were three different trends within the Second International—Social Chauvinistic, Centrist, and Proletarian Internationalist. The Social Chauvinists supported the reactionary ruling classes of their own country in the name of 'defending fatherland' and 'domestic peace'. Thus, they helped these imperialist rulers to mobilise the workers in the war to fulfill the interest of the imperialists and their political position, led the working class to cut each other's throat, unfortunately in the name of 'Internationalism'. Thus, they were the enemies of the working class and the masses. The centrists ostensibly opposed the war and pretended themselves as revolutionaries. Really, they were the agents of social chauvinists and strived their best to conceal them (social chauvinists) from being exposed of their bankruptcy in the working class movement. Bolsheviks under the leadership of Lenin, fought ruthlessly against both of these erroneous lines and to establish the proletarian internationalist line. But the leadership of the Second International was virtually usurped by opportunists led by Kautsky. Thus, ideologically and politically, the Second International went on degenerating and thus leading to a doom.

Process of condemning and dissociating with the opportunists of the Second International and forming revolutionary communist Parties and organisations based upon Marxist ideology was intensified in many European countries. The victory of October Socialist Revolution of Russia in 1917, shook the whole world, also giving impetus to the formation of a new International. On the basis of true proletarian internationalism all the preparations were completed in the direct initiative of Lenin, to form a new and Third International. The First Congress of the Communist International was successfully held in Moscow on March 1919. The Congress resolved to found the Third Communist International. Formation of tile Comintern was a great victory of the communist revolutionaries against the reformists and opportunists of the Second International, which is correctly assessed in the history of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union: 'The founding of the Comintern was a great victory for Marxism-Leninism over social reformism. The best of the revolutionary forces of the world proletariat rallied to the banner of the Communist International' [5]. After that the Comintern was directly instructed and guided by Lenin himself until his life time.

After the death of Lenin, it was Stalin who led the Comintern. In course of the Second World War, the Comintern was dissolved in May 1943. The reason behind dissolution of the Comintern has been stated in the history of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union as follows: 'Experience had shown that the unification of the progressive forces and the mobilisation of the masses to fight fascism could best be effected by the Communist Party of each particular country outside the framework of the Comintern. Besides, it was necessary completely to refute the calumny of the Hitlerites and their accomplices to the effect that the Communist Parties were allegedly acting not in the interest of their people but on orders from outside. Considering all these circumstances and the fact that the Comintern had accomplished its historic task, the Presidium of the Executive Committee of the Communist International decided in May, 1943 to dissolve the Comintern. The decision was approved by all the Communist Parties'. [6]

After the Second World War Soviet Communist Party and Stalin took initiative in forging unity of the Communist Parties at the international level and an international forum named 'Cominform' was formed. But because of various reasons 'Cominform' could neither develop to any organisation like Comintern nor could continue for long.

Com. Mao adopted dialectical approach to the Comintern: he appreciated its positive aspects and criticised its weaknesses. Appreciating its positive aspect Com. Mao has said, 'It is true that the Communist International was created by Lenin himself. During the entire existence it has rendered the greatest services in helping each country to organise a truly revolutionary worker's Party, and it has also contributed enormously to the great cause of organising the anti-fascist war' [7].

Com. Mao seems to be critical about the functioning of the Comintern 'Since the Seventh World Congress of the Communist International, in 1935, the Communist International has not intervened in the internal affairs of the Chinese Communist Party. And yet, the Chinese Communist Party has done its work very well, throughout the whole anti-Japanese war of National Liberation. . . .' [8]

Com. Mao has also endorsed the dissolution of the Comintern in the following terms, 'It is a principle of Marxism-Leninism that the forms of revolutionary organisations must be adopted to the necessities of the revolutionary struggle. If a form of organisation is no longer adopted to the necessities of the struggle, then this form of organisation must be abolished [9]. Com. Mao further said, 'At present the form of revolutionary organisation known as the Communist International is no longer adapted to the necessities of the struggle' [10].

After the death of Stalin, Mao strived hard in forging unity among all the genuine Communist Parties and Organisations of the World. He participated in the Moscow meeting of representatives of the Communist and Worker's Parties, in 1957. In the meeting, Mao took a painstaking effort to adopt a unanimous Declaration and presented specific amendments in the draft put forward by Khruschev.

Another meeting of 81 fraternal parties was held in Moscow on November 1960. There was a sharp struggle led by the delegation of the CPC against the revisionist line put forward by the CPSU delegation Khrushev, who had immediately returned from New York, intended to split the ICM, which CPC delegation condemned. Majority of the delegations of fraternal parties also demanded unity, not the split. The CPC delegation, as directly instructed by Mao himself, played very important role to maintain unity in the ICM. Real picture of the meeting has been stated in the polemic on the general line of the International Communist Movement, like this—'By their base conduct, the leaders of the CPSU brought the meeting to the brink of rupture. But the meeting finally reached agreement and achieved positive results, because the delegations of the Chinese Communist Party and some other fraternal parties kept to principle, persevered in struggle and upheld unity, and because the majority of the delegations of the fraternal parties demanded unity and were against a split' [11].

Later, when Khrushev and clique degenerated to a complete revisionism and tried to mislead the Soviet people and the communist revolutionaries of the whole world, CPC under the leadership of Mao carried out vigorous ideological struggle, which helped educating the revolutionaries of the whole world and arming them with the invincible ideology of Marxism-Leninism-Maoism. Thus, Mao laid down the basis of unity within the ICM through the anti-revisionist struggle. Nevertheless this ideological basis of unity could not be translated into forming any international organisation, because of some complexities of the world situation of that time and some other reasons. Although, such organisation could not be formed, Com. Mao was virtually leading the ICM through ideological contributions and genuine support to the communist movements as well as all the revolutionary movements throughout the world. Com. Mao and CPC were so established in the ICM at the time of Mao, that all the ideological, political positions taken up by Mao and CPC were regarded and granted to be as unopposed. Therefore it is crystal clear that Mao, as an outstanding leader of the international proletariat continued the glorious heritage of Marx, Engels, Lenin and Stalin.

After the death of Com. Mao, followed by counter-revolutionary coup d'etat in China, some efforts of uniting various types of 'Communist Organisations' by generating other international platforms, forums or organisations, apart from the RIM, have also been started through different forces, which can be summed up as follows:

The North Korean leadership had invited leaders from various 'Communist Parties and Organisations' and at the end of the programme, they had issued a joint communiqué. But since they have been engulfed by their own ideological, political and economic crisis and heading towards bigger crisis, and now it seems that they are neither in position to continue nor it is necessary for them to continue such effort.

Some organisations used to convene international seminars, as their major task of their organization, by inviting all organisations named 'Communist Party' or 'Worker's Party' in which there are so divergent views that there is no unity among them in basic ideological line too. It is not possible to bear fruit through such aimless gatherings and one cannot hope for important results through this type of seminars. It can be suggested that firstly, the organisers themselves should have clear and correct position on basic ideological, political line.

'International Conference of Marxist-Leninist Parties and Organisations' are being constantly held since few years back and as its continuation, 'Fifth Conference of the International Conference of Marxist-Leninist Parties and Organisations (ICML)' was held on October 1996. Big disparity seems to lie among the participants in the conference, e.g. CPI(ML) (PW) which is waging agrarian armed struggle since almost two decades and has made good advance, was one of the participants in one hand, and UML Party of Nepal, which is the ruling Party in the reactionary state of Nepal and one of the main enemies of the on-going People's War in Nepal, is also a participant, on the other hand. Though the organisers are very hopeful and are going to convene Sixth Conference 'in order to continue, step by step the process of reaching ideological and political unity in the Marxist-Leninist and working class movement internationally' [12]. But the question is, whether ICML can reach at 'ideological and political unity' with a reactionary ruling party such as, UML of Nepal, simultaneously with the Parties such as, CPI(ML) (PW), which is leading armed struggle since almost two decades? It is sure, it can not. Therefore efforts should have to be made or intensified to unite the genuine Marxist-Leninist-Maoist forces, who are either waging People's War or are involved seriously in its preparation, accordingly to the concrete conditions prevailing in their respective societies.

A three-day international seminal was jointly convened by CPI(ML) (PW), India, CPP, Philippines and TKP/ML, Turkey on the occasion of 105th birth Anniversary of Com. Mao Tse-tung. The topic of the seminar was 'Mao and People's War'. It was attended by 22 Parties and organisations, who put forward their line either through papers or by oral presentation. Our Party, CPN(Maoist) was also invited, but could not attend the seminar due to some technical problems which is correctly stated in their report, 'The CPN(M) of Nepal was prevented from coming by the authorities and embassy officials in Nepal and were therefore unable to present their rich experience' [13]. Among the participants 13 signed the joint communiqué. The organisers have categorically classified the invitees into two groups—first 6 Parties and organisations, waging People's War and second, 21 groups supporting the people's war. But it is found that among the participants there were some organisations which have neither any concern with People's War, nor they have made any contribution in support of People's War. Therefore, it is necessary on the part of the convenors to be concentrated in uniting with genuine Maoist forces. The three Parties, which have jointly convened the seminar, are those who are having rich experiences of armed struggle. It is learnt that they are going to bring out 'Vanguard International', a quarterly bulletin, aiming at propagating the revolutionary activities taking place in different parts of the globe. All the three parties have no disagreement with the basic ideological position of the RIM, that is why they are also close to the RIM. Thus, it will be further acknowledged and appreciated, if the aforesaid three Parties contributed more to strengthen the RIM.

In course of the struggle in the last 15 years, RIM is developing itself as the only reliable and genuine international embryonic political centre. In spite of its own limitations and weaknesses RIM has accomplished some major tasks regarding the ICM, which can be summed up as follows:

RIM upholds Marxism-Leninism-Maoism, as its ideological commander and guide, which is the highest developed form of the ideology of our class. The decision of advancing in the ideological line to a qualitative leap was taken in the Expanded Meeting of the CORIM, which was held on the occasion of Mao Centenary. Now, MLM has become the basis of higher level of unity among the genuine communist forces at the international level. This big leap made by the RIM in the field of ideology, has brought it in the forefront, enabling itself as the only international political embryonic centre, which contains ability or organising genuine communist revolutionaries of the world.

As one of the major tasks, the CORIM has been conducting, tirelessly, world-wide campaigns, in support of the PW in Peru and PW in Nepal, helping them to enable in enjoying international support. During the campaigns and in other occasions CORIM is propagating the ideologic, political and military line of PCP and CPN(Maoist), strategy and tactics of these Parties and advancements made by the People's Wars led by them. Thus, the CORIM enabled communist revolutionaries around the world, to know about the line questions evolved in the PWs, and enthused the masses of every corner of the globe, through the message of heroic sacrifices and advancement made by the revolutionary masses of Peru and Nepal, through the PWs.

There was an imminent danger in the life of Com. Gonzalo, the Chairman of PCP, when he was captured by Fujimori regime on 12 September 1992. According to the report, 'Fujimori announced his plans to kill Com. Gonzalo. His date of execution was set. The firing squad was chosen' [14]. CORIM initiated a world wide campaign, 'Move Heaven and Earth to Defend the Life of Com. Gonzalo' and carry out the fight to break the isolation, to exert international pressure upon CIA and the Fujimori regime of Peru. This campaign not only helped to create pressure to the reactionaries, but also popularise Com. Gonzalo, PCP and the PW led by it, among vast masses around the world, thereby helping the masses to know about the unfolding growth of the People's War. Solidarity call of the CORIM with the campaign of 'Save the Life of Mumia Abu-Jamal' should also have to be taken as an important step.

Active participation of the CORIM in the major two-lines struggles occurring within the particular participating Parties has made a significant contribution to fight against the wrong line in order to establish the correct one. RIM has correctly fought against the liquidationist line, one of the concrete forms of right opportunist line, put forward by K. Venu, the then Secretary of the former CRC, CPI(ML), which was one of the founder parties of the RIM. Similarly, RIM has played excellent role to expose the capitulationist line, specific form of a right opportunist line (popularly known in Spanish as 'Asumir') as put forward by some degenerated leader of the PCP, while helping correct position followed by the present leadership of the PCP to advance.

RIM is striving hard to form new Maoist Party or Organisation, when it is not existing and help those to advance further, which are already existing and waging struggles in different levels.

CORIM is constantly trying to develop the ideological level and forging unity within the movement by various means.

RIM has been playing leading role in celebrating international ceremonies of our class, such as 'Hundred and Fifty Years of the Publication of the Communist Manifesto', 'International May Day', 'International Women's Day' etc.

Thus, it is beyond any doubt that in the present international context, RIM is developing itself as the only reliable international political embryonic centre of the ICM. Therefore, it has become one of the major tasks of communist revolutionaries of the world to contribute in strengthening, developing and make it more capable and more efficient, aiming to develop it as an International of a new type, the Fourth International, as unfolding glorious heritage of First, Second and the Third Internationals.

The ongoing People's War in Peru and Nepal agrarian armed struggles and armed liberation movements in India and struggles growing in different parts of the world contributed to aggravate the crisis in the imperialist and expansionist countries, which have become more acute and worse ever than before, giving rise to new possibilities of revolutionary upsurges, at the international level. As an international embryonic political center: responsibility of RIM has increased many folds. We can hope and believe that involving itself in all these struggles and fulfilling the tasks and facing the challenges that have come in front, RIM will advance further and the march of 'formation of a Communist International of a new type, based on Marxism-Leninism-Maoism '[15]will be further accelerated and the dream will come true.

1. Declaration of the Revolutionary Internationalist Movement and Long Live Marxism-Leninism-Maoism! pp. 13

2. Ibid, pp.6

3. PCP Central Committee, August 1986, from AWTW 1987/8

4. V.I. Lenin - Selected Works in three Volumes - Vol. I, pp. l8

5. History of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, pp. 312

6. Ibid, pp. 583-84

7. Selected Works of Mao Tse-tung, Vol. VI, pp.406

8. Ibid, pp. 407

9. Ibid, pp. 406

10. Ibid, pp. 407

11. The great Debate, the Polemic of the General Line of the International Communist Movements, pp. 65

12. From resolution of the Fifth Conference of ICML, Resolution No. 4

13. People's March, Vol. I, No. 1, pp. 38

14. 'The Fight to End the Isolation', AWTW 1995/21, pp. 52

15. Declaration of the Revolutionary Internationalist Movement and Long Live Marxism-Leninism-Maoism! pp. 65