Knowledge is a
resource. Like how we must dig the earth for fetching the ore and extract metal
from it. Like how we nurture a plant with adequate water, fertilizers and allow
enough sunshine to grow into a good strong tree. So also, knowledge is acquired
after observation or hypotheses, analyses, experimentation or testing and
finally application. And knowledge of one particular profession needs the
proverbial "burning of the midnight oil", hard mental labour and extensive
research. Finally, man utilizes his knowledge for the services of the community
he belongs to. But sadly enough, just as the imperialists control the political
systems of the weaker third world countries, they continue robbing them of their
resource of knowledge base, chiefly by brain drain.
"Brain drain" is the
exodus of skilled professionals — physicians, engineers, scientists, educators —
from less developed countries to the more developed ones, causing some very
serious damage to the communities they leave behind. And the worst is that
underdeveloped nations lose the very people they can least afford to — the
skilled and educated, who largely contribute to the crucial services like health
and economy along with creating newer jobs.
For example, the
number of African scientists and engineers employed in the United States is more
than that in entire Africa — leaving the continent of 600 million people with
just 20,000 engineers and scientists. The United Nations calls brain drain one
of the greatest threats to economic development in the sub-Saharan Africa.
How do people left behind get
One of the most
critically affected areas, healthcare systems in the underdeveloped countries
are on the brink of collapse "even as these countries continue to send many
of their healthcare workers abroad," says the United Nations. For example:
a) A few years ago,
Zambia had 1,600 doctors. Today, this number has dwindled to a mere 400.
b) More than 2l,000
doctors from Nigeria are working in the U.S. This, while Nigeria itself suffers
from a shortage of healthcare workers.
c) Sixty percent of
Ghana’s doctors left during the 1980s, leaving the healthcare system in critical
d) Exodus of health
professionals from Sierra Leone is expected to soon lead to the closure of
several health facilities in that country. Seventy percent of graduates from the
country’s College of Medicine and Allied Sciences have left for "greener
e) Serious shortage
of doctors and nurses in Zimbabwe has led to clinics being run by inexperienced
staff like nurse-aides, who cannot administer certain drugs to patients. 18,000
nurses from Zimbabwe work abroad.
f) One-third of
Ethiopia’s general practitioners left between 1988 and 2001 and the country’s
Gondar Medical Science College had to close five departments.
g) One-third to
one-half of South African medical graduates emigrate.
h) The number of
unfilled positions in Czech hospitals has tripled over the last three years,
with more than 500 posts now vacant.
The list is endless.
Engineers, and Other Skilled Professions
Mexico claims that
79% of science students it sponsors for studying abroad, never return. While
twelve percent of its labour force lives in the U.S., 30 percent of Mexicans
with PhDs also live there. About 75 percent of Jamaicans with higher education
stay in the U.S. An estimated 20 percent of skilled South Africans have already
left it and 70 percent are considering leaving. Zimbabwe’s once revered mining
industry is facing imminent collapse as a result of lost manpower.
Four out of every ten
Indian software developers are working in the U.S. In 1998, the renowned Indian
Institute of Technology sent 30 percent of all of its graduates to the U.S.,
including 80 percent of its computer science graduates.
Labour Organisation has forewarned that as many intellectuals are leaving
Colombia, the country is losing competitiveness and facing economic collapse.
In a bid to replace
this lost labour, underdeveloped countries are then forced to hire professionals
from developed countries, but at a higher cost. The United Nations reports that
India loses two billion dollars a year due to the exodus of skilled labour to
the U.S. alone. Africa spends an estimated four billion dollars annually to
replace lost talent.
Countries also incur
a net financial loss when their professional workers leave and they no longer
contribute to their home country’s income-tax base. A study of professional
migration from India to the U.S. found that the annual tax revenue loss was to
the tune of $700 million, twelve percent of the country’s total income base for
the year. With each migrating professional, Africa loses $184,000.
Departure of skilled
professionals can decrease the need for unskilled labour by decreasing the
demand for the goods and services the skilled professionals would have otherwise
required. In South Africa, for each professional who leaves, as many as ten
unskilled jobs are destroyed. Additionally, the negative effect of the loss of
professional workers is compounded, as neither they are creating wealth for
their native country nor are they passing their skills to future generations.
Brain drain in Indian
The main motto of
education in a semi-feudal, semi-colonial country like India is — to serve the
interests of the imperialists who control it. To exploit the cheap labour, the
market and the social and natural resources, the imperialists preserve and
exploit that system of education which serves them best. Brain drain is
another feature in our education and social system which shows the imperialist
(a) Brain Drain In
We know that it is
the comprador character of our bourgeoisie that makes them act like extended
production or marketing units of their overseas bosses. All the spending
announced by Indian industries in the name of research and development is mere
eyewash to save taxes. Scientist and engineers involved in R & D activity are
only 157 per 1,000,000 people in India, according to UNDP 2003 (Table: 1) The
corresponding figures in developed countries like the US, Japan, Germany are
4,099, 5,095 and 3,161 respectively.
India’s net spending
in R&D is 1.2% of its GDP, while developed countries spend more than 2% of their
GDP. So, the number of patents and earnings through royalty and licence fees of
developed countries is much higher than the underdeveloped and poor countries.
Even much of the R&D in India goes only to service imperialist research
structural adjustment program initiated by the Congress government in the 1990s,
the IMF & WB instructed our policymakers to spend more on primary and vocational
education than higher education. Though all these sections of educational
spending are required for a country’s self-reliance, imperialists did not want
to let the third world countries to develop their own technology. So, any IMF/WB
loan/aid came in with clear pre-condition that the expenditure on technology
development in education must be reduced.
Instead, the third
world nations were instructed to give priority to vocational education and
information technology so that the capitals’ need of cheap software
professionals and other skilled workforce can be mitigated at the public cost of
the third world countries. As discussed earlier, comprador capitalists in third
world countries don’t spend in R&D as they buy technology from TNCs. Since the
government has marginalized expenditure on R&D, the probability of getting an
employment in India for a Masters /doctorate /post-doctorate students in her/his
field of interest becomes bleak.
creates a pressure on the "BEST and BRIGHTEST" of the students not to opt for
basic science in India as their career. Instead they migrate either to
engineering degree, which will give them a chance to jump onto the software
bandwagon and work for the imperialists, or to get a student visa for the U.S.
or some other developed country for a masters/doctorate/post-doctorate there,
later secure a working visa (H-1B) and eventually develop technology for the
imperialists. For past 3 years, India has been sending the maximum number of
‘foreign students’ to the U.S. Only half of foreign doctorate and
post-doctorate students studying in the U.S. return to their home countries
within two years of finishing studies. Almost a quarter of all the H-1B visa
holders in 2000 had previously possessed American student visas. (Mario
Cervantes and Dominique Geullec, "The Brain Drain: Old Myths, New Realities,"
OECD Observer, May 7, 2002. The Economist, op. cit).
students enrolling in the US (1992-2004)
A detailed study of
the table above shows the growing trend of Indian students heading for higher
studies in the U.S. The number of students have increased double-fold in 1990s.
A meaty chunk of this population will or have secured H1-B visas (working visas)
and later on "GREEN CARDS". The annual number of PhDs in engineering and
technology in India is 5,000 and we can easily see the brain drain to the U.S.
when we compare this to our annual figures. According to UNDP 2001, of the
81,000 U.S. visas approved between October 1999 and 2000, 40 percent were for
Indians, of whom more than half were computer-related professionals, a sixth for
sciences and engineering.
Thus the so called
"BEST and BRIGHTEST" are lured away. Their basic education may be financed by
the people of third world but their contribution to newer technologies is
enjoyed by the imperialists, who use these very technologies for further
(b) Migration of Software
Professionals From 1990:
United Nations, July
10, 2001 (PTI)): "India loses $ 2 billion a year in resources through the
brain-drain of 100,000 skilled computer professionals to US alone," said a Human
Development report released by the UN today. The report further emphasized
that…"By providing IT education – India’s English-language technical colleges
turn out over 73,000 graduates a year - and by investing in infrastructure the
Government has ensured India’s place in the new economy."
Parallel to the
shifting of labor-intensive industries like automobile, textile, leather,
footwear et al, to the underdeveloped countries for maximising their profits,
global capital began to exploit the soft-skilled professionals of underdeveloped
countries. This was done so that imperialist countries can better maintain their
global business empires through improved communication and software techniques.
Post structural adjustment programs taken up in 1980s and 1990s, they had
already secured the required supply of skilful but not critical software
professionals from third world. Therefore, the flow of manpower from India since
1990 onwards is concentrated in software and Information technology (IT).
IT professionals are
not very highly skilled in creating a paradigm shift in any economy or science
or the society. In essence, they are not agents of technological or qualitative
changes in production processes leading to socio-economic revolution. But they
can potentially earn more profit for the trans-nationals in this age of "globalisation
and connectivity". The point is the intrinsic worth of hordes of IT
professionals deserting India is not as high as that of trained scientists or
technologists. Any engineer with a six-month training can do most IT jobs. And
this is what is happening. India is loosing engineering and technical
professionals to IT. So, while US and UK engineers have stuck to their own
technical fields, the dirty but talent-intensive IT work is dumped on Indian
In response to the
tremendous demand for skilled workers, the U.S. implemented a selective,
temporary unmigration policy for skilled workers during the 1990s that resulted
in a dramatic change in the flow of human capital from India to the U.S. As on
March 2001, more than a million Indian-born individuals were residing in the
United States — more than double since 1990. (Figure: 1).
Of these 1 million US
resident Indians, more than half were in the fiscally sought-after 25 to
44-year-old group and more than three-quarters of the working age population had
a bachelor’s degree or better. Indeed, an estimated 38 percent of this age group
had masters, professional, or doctorate degrees, compared to just 9 percent of
bachelor’s degree in the native-born U.S population.
In fact, Indian-born
residents of the U.S. are four times as likely to have a graduate degree as the
natives and their median income is 16% higher than the median income of the
natives. A population that is only 0.1% of that of India has an aggregate income
of 10% of the Indian national income. Moreover, the human capital intensity of
the outflow of Indians to the U.S. has increased substantially during the 1990s.
Of the Indians who
came since 1990 and were still in the U.S. at the end of the decade, an
estimated 78 had a bachelor’s degree or better — 21 points more than the group
that came during the 1980s and were still in the U.S. at the end of 1990. The
results demonstrate that the 1990s group differed markedly from contemporary
immigrants from other countries and from previous groups of Indian-born
immigrants. The myriad consequences of these developments for underdeveloped
countries include the direct loss of the fiscal contribution of these
highly-skilled individuals. The loss of talent to India during the 1990s was
dramatic and highly concentrated amongst the prime-age work force, the highly
educated and high earners. The net fiscal loss associated with the U.S.
Indian-born resident population ranges from 0.24% to 0.58% of Indian GDP
in 2001. (Desai, Kapoor Harvard University 2001)
(c) The Latest Brain Drain Technique:
Business Process Outsourcing (BPO)
The latest trend in
brain drain is outsourcing In this era of internet and long-distance telephony,
it is no longer necessary for the TNCs to retain the third world manpower in the
first world and shell out first world rates. Instead, it is more profitable to
outsource the business process to English/French/German/Spanish speaking
population of the third world countries who will do the job of a first world
worker at 1/20th of the original cost.
Many an Indian
comprador bourgeoisie and multinationals have started their BPO arms in full
swing. It is estimated that 78% of Indian engineers from Mechanical, Electrical,
Electronics, Civil, Instrumentation, Chemical and Biomedical engineering leave
their field and work for the BPO arms of TCS, Wipro etc. Most talented students
are running after the dollar-driven outsourcing work from the US or UK, working
and learning IT and/or call-centre work.
non-technical students from other fields of studies are also joining these call-centres.
Thus, the imperialists are using the public spending in our education system to
serve their designs. Our drug companies are also in the process of outsourcing
of talent in fields like drug research and manufacturing. The European
Commission communication published on 16, June, 2004, which called for increased
co-operation between the EU and India in fields like biotech, declares ‘The EU
is the world’s second largest centre of biotech research activity after the USA.
Indian biotech has been advancing rapidly in the past few years. Its next
challenge is to successfully integrate the Indian biotech industry with the
global biotech innovation system’.
"With the global
industry’s current focus on accelerating productivity, collaboration is the way
forward for several American and European companies faced by resource
constraints. With its abundant high quality-low cost technical manpower, India
is emerging as a partner of choice," explains Utkarsh Palnitkar, health
sciences industry leader at Ernst & Young India.
The phenomena of
brain drain is manipulated and controlled by global capital to suit its purpose
and increase profit margins. The poor in our country and other third world
nations are bearing the cost of education of their "Best and Brightest", but
missing out on the social contribution they could make on their native country.
So, to stop brain drain, we must repeal the imperialists’ new economic policies,
that are pushing the world market into every facet of our lives along with
opposing the semi-colonial semi feudal system, which is happily collaborating
with the imperialists.